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Researches
What should we do against global warming?

Many countries use fossil fuels especially like coal although these fuels are extremely harmful to the environment. Kyoto protocol calls OECD countries for action to increase their greenhouse gas emissions. In Kyoto, total greenhouse gas emissions between 2008-2012 are targeted to be lowered 5.4% of the level in 1990. Choose environmentally friendly products. WF invites governments and  the business world to take  responsibility for using renewable energy sources with its worldwide campaign Powerswitch!. Within the scope of the campaign, water, geothermal, biomass and solar energy use is promoted instead of fossil fuels such as coal, petrol and natural gas or nuclear power.
National energy strategies should be prepared to foresee a period of at least 30 years. Policies should be determined to develop and safely use other energy sources. Participation of non-governmental organisations and local public in the formation of the national energy policy should be ensured.
On the condition that environmental impact assessment is done, alternative energy sources such as wind and the sun should be utilized.
Agriculture causes various emissions such as ammonia and methane to blend into the atmosphere. 90% of Europe's ammonia emission originates from livestock and chemical fertilizers. Chemical fertilizer use also increases nitrogen dioxide, which is a greenhouse gas, emission. The use of fertilizers containing nitrogen and phosphorus should also be decreased.

What can we do?

  •  Energy saver light bulbs should be used.
  •  Televisions should not be left on standby mode.
  •  Lighting should be used correctly.
  •  Ventilator should be used instead of air conditioning.
  •  Houses be insulated against heat loss.
  •  Furniture must be placed so as not to cover the radiators.

Another important problem is the scarcity of water resources. However, there are some precautions to be taken.

  •  The faucet should not be left open during brushing teeth, washing dishes and shaving.
  •  Toilets compatible with new technologies and consuming less water should be used.
  •  Cleaning solvents hanged on toilets should not be used.
  •  Bleach consumption should be minimized.
  •  Leaking fittings should be repaired.
  •  Watering and washing with a hose should be avoided.
  •  Filters purifying water from lime and bacteria should be used.

Environmental organizations, also warns consumers about the transportation sector. This sector is the chief consumer of renewable energy sources and emissions of the gases used in this sector cause air pollution and climate changes.

  •  Public transport should be preferred.
  •  Instead of going by car, walking should be preferred for short distances.
  •  Vehicles operating on unleaded fuel should be preferred.
  •  Carrying capacity of the vehicle should not be exceeded.
  •  The vehicle's ignition should be switched off for longer stops.

Environmental organizations recommend consumers to embrace recycling as a lifestyle and avoid excessive consumption during shopping. Consumption of packaging is at the top of the most important topics on which consumers should act carefully. As the time required for plastic packages to dissolve in the nature is almost a thousand years.

  •  Consumers should prefer long-lasting products.
  •  Products sold in non-recyclable packages should not be purchased.
  •  Plastic packaging, PVC in the first place, should be avoided.
  •  Glass products such as bottles or jars should be preferred.
  •  Products such as plastic bags and food containers should be reused.
  •  Plastic bags should not be used for shopping.
  •  Glass materials should not be disposed of together with organic garbage.

The pollution generated by computers, which have become integral parts of everyday life, cannot be underestimated as well.

  •  Models with lower electricity consumption should be purchased.
  •  Printing on paper should be minimized.
  •  Computers should not be left on standby mode.
  •  Unused computers should not be thrown away.

The Reasons of Global Warming 

The scientists think that the increase in temperature in the last 50 years have noticeable effects on human life.And now we are approaching a point of no return.
If no precaution is taken by the end of this century the average global temperature is estimated to rise by 2 degrees.
There is an anticipation that 2007 will be the warmest year of the last 150 when the records started to be kept across the world.
So what does this temperature increase, i.e. global warming, leads to? How does it affect our lives?
The effects of global warming, causing changes in the world's climate system, are being felt all over the world from the highest peaks to the ocean depths, from the equator to the poles.
The polar ice caps are melting, sea level is rising and soil losses in coastal areas are increasing. For example, there has been a decline of 10 percent in the snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere since the late 1960s. During the 20th century sea level has also been found to rise about 10-25 cm.

Due to global warming, severity and frequency of hurricanes, floods and torrents have increased in some parts of the world whereas long-term, severe droughts and desertification has been most effective in some areas.
In winter, temperatures are rising, the spring is coming early, autumn is delayed, migration periods of animals are changing. In other words, climates are changing.
Plant and animal species which cannot stand these changes are either declined or fully eliminated.
Global warming would also directly affect the human health.
Scientists think that climate changes may trigger cardiac arrest, respiratory, infectious, allergic and other diseases.
 
The effects of global warming on Turkey
in 2070 temperatures in Turkey will rise by about 6 degrees, the rainfall will significantly decrease except for the Black Sea region.When the ecosystem changes, many species will face extinction.Istanbul Technical University, Eurasia Institute of Earth Sciences has prepared a scenario of the effects of global warming on Turkey. According to this scenario, if global warming continues in the same way, temperatures in Turkey will rise by about 6 degrees in 2070. Ecosystem will change, species will face extinction.Prof.Dr. Nüzhet Dalfes, criticised Turkey's stance towards the fight against global warming. She said "For the first time the government of the Republic of Turkey, in a way, requested information from us. This is of course made us very happy, but Turkey is a country that is too late in this respect".
Dalfes stated that they prepared a report entitled "climate change scenarios for Turkey" upon request of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, and the data obtained so far covered the years 2070 -2100.
Dalfes indicated that a projection working for the worst-case scenario was prepared and she added "a not so nice tableau is awaiting Turkey".
According to data at hand, if global warming continues in the same way, summer temperatures in western Turkey will rise by 5 to 6 degrees whereas the temperatures in the Middle and East Anatolia and Southeast Anatolia regions will rise by 3 to 4 degrees.
Also in winter, the temperatures will rise by 2 to 3 degrees.
According to this scenario, the precipitation in Black Sea Region will increase 10 to 20 per cent in 2070 while it will decrease by up to 30 per cent in the south.
Prof. Dr. Nüzhet Dalfes, highlights that climate change will be felt in different ways, climate change will be felt more in the coming decades and says:
"There will winters with snowfalls and winters with less snowfalls. There will be serious problems in ecosystems of Turkey, and these ecosystems are what uphold a country, a geography... Bugs, meadows, wolves, animals, all living things will be affected, a lot of species will perish... "Dalfes, emphasises the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions first of all, in the fight against global warming. Studies conducted by the Istanbul Technical University, Eurasia Institute of Earth Sciences are scheduled for completion next year.

The results of global warming  
The results of global warming   As a result of the studies of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the consequences of global warming in Europe, poles, small island states and other parts of the world were determined.   The draft report will be discussed at meetings of IPCC that will begin tomorrow and that are supported by the governments of more than 130 countries. Approximately 2000 scientist and government representatives will attend the meetings. The final version of the report will be announced in Brussels on 6 April.

EXPECTED EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN EUROPE

  •  Parts of river bed basins with severe and dangerous currents will rise from 19 percent to 34-36 percent in 2070.
  •  Probably millions of people in Western Europe will live in wetlands in deprivation.
  •  In case a scenario with rapid increase in average global temperatures is realised, an additional 2.5 million people will be affected by the floods in coastlines per year in 2080s.
  • According to various scenarios, stream potentials in the Mediterranean part of Europe will fall by 20-50 percent by 2070, whereas they will increase by 15-30 percent in parts of Northern and Eastern Europe.
  • Small Alpine glaciers will disappear; big ones will melt by 30-70 percent by 2050.
  • Mediterranean tourism will fall in summer and increase in spring and fall.

THE POLES AND SOME OTHER REGIONS 

  • Sea icecaps in the Arctic will decline by 22-33 percent until 2100, whereas the Antarctic may completely disappear. Important thinning will be observed in areas outside of the sea, and this, will raise the sea level on Earth.
  • Sea-level is estimated to rise by 18-59 centimetres until 2100.
  • Currently, the Himalayan glacial area of 500 thousand square kilometres may regress down to 100 thousand square kilometres by 2030.
  • There will be hunger in many countries in Asia.
  • The number of people with water shortages in Asia will rise up to 1.2 billion people in 2020.
  • In island states, international airports and roads usually built in coastal areas may go under water.




Activities
09.03.2020
TIKAD General Assembly meeting was held in Istanbul. Association's organs were elected at the 2020 Generel Assembly. Ms. Nilüfer Bulut re-elected as Chairwoman of TİKAD


06.03.2020
"Ring the Bell for Gender Equality at Borsa Istanbul " ceremony hosted by Borsa Istanbul Group and TIKAD, with the presence of First Lady Emine Erdoğan.


02.03.2020
After Turkish soldiers have been killed in an airstrike in Syria´s Idlib province, 30 ngo leaders read joint statement at press conference in Ankara. President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan received the ngo Leaders after the press conference.


22.02.2020
Gala Breakfast of the Entrepreneur Women Center (GIKAMER) project will be held at Tarabya Hotel in Istanbul, with the presence of First Lady Emine Erdoğan.


28.01.2020
20th General Assembly of Istanbul Development Agency was held on 28th January at ISO. TIKAD is one of the members of ISTKA and Ms Nilüfer Bulut attended the Assembly as Representative of TIKAD


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